Women in Academia References

Canadian Academia and the Faculty Gender Gap

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CAUT. (2011). The persistent gap: Understanding male-female salary differentials amongst Canadian academic staffCAUT Equity Review, 5. 

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Dasgupta, N., & Stout, J. G. (2014). Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: STEMing the Tide and Broadening Participation in STEM CareersPolicy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 21–29.

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Henry, F., & Tator, C. (2012). Interviews with racialized faculty members in Canadian universities. Canadian Ethnic Studies 44(2), 75–99.

Hirshfield, L. E., & Joseph, T. D. (2012). ‘We need a woman, we need a black woman’: Gender, race, and identity taxation in the academy. Gender and Education, 24(2), 213– 227.

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Jackson, J.F. & O’Callaghan, E.M. (2008). What do we know about glass ceiling effects? A taxonomy and critical review to inform higher education research. Research in Higher Education, 50, 460-482.

Johnson, B. J., & Harvey, W. B. (2002). The socialization of Black college faculty: Implications for policy and practice. Review of Higher Education, 25(3), 297–314.

Loden, M. (2017, December 13). 100 Women: “Why I invented the glass ceiling phrase.” BBC News.

Lyonette, C., & Crompton, R. (2015). Partners’ relative earnings and the division of domestic labour. Work, Employment & Society, 29(1), 23–40.

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Momani, B., Dreher, E., Dreher, E., & Williams, K. (2019). More than a pipeline problem: Evaluating the gender pay gap in Canadian academia from 1996 to 2016. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 49(1), 1–21.

Mountz, A. (2016). Women on the edge: Workplace stress at universities in North America. The Canadian Geographer, 60(2), 205–218.

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Pasquerella, L. & Clauss-Ehlers, C.S. (2017). Glass cliffs, queen bees, and the snow woman effect. Liberal Education, 103(2), 6-13.

Perna, L. (2001). Sex differences in faculty salaries: A cohort analysis. Review of Higher Education 24(3), 283-308.

Sallee, M. W. (2012). The ideal worker or the ideal father: Organizational structures and culture in the gendered universityResearch in Higher Education, 53(7), 782–802.

Seward, B. Y. B., Truong, K., & Kapadia, D. (2019). Untapped pool or leaky pipeline? Female involvement in the ICT sector. Toronto: Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation.

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Spafford, M. M., Nygaard, V. L., Gregor, F., & Boyd, M. A. (2006). “Navigating the different spaces”: Experiences of inclusion and isolation among racially minoritized faculty in Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 36(1), 1–27.

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Statistics Canada. (2019, November 25). Number and salaries of full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities (final), 2018/2019The Daily.

Statistics Canada. (2020a). Table 37-10-0108-01 Number and salaries of full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities.

Statistics Canada. (2020b, February 19). Family Matters: sharing housework among couple sin Canada: who does what?

Statistics Canada. (2020c, September 22). Survey of postsecondary faculty and researchers, 2019The Daily.

Stewart, P., Ornstein, M., & Drakich, J. (2009). Gender and promotion at Canadian universities. Canadian Review of Sociology, 46(1), 59–85.

Sunderland, J. (2004). Gendered Discourses. Palgrave Macmillan. London. Retrieved in part from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9780230505582_1

Valian, V. (2005). Beyond gender schemas: Improving the advancement of women in academia. Hypatia, 20(3), 198–213.

van Anders, S. M. (2004). Why the academic pipeline leaks: Fewer men than women perceive barriers to becoming professors. Sex Roles, 51(9–10), 511–521.

Wall, K. (2019, May 2). Persistence and representation of women in STEM programsInsights on Canadian Society. Catalogue no. 75-006-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Wang, C. & Doolittle, R. (2021). Locked out of the ivory tower: How universities keep women from rising to the topThe Globe and Mail.

Ward, K. & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2016). Academic Motherhood: Mid-Career Perspectives and the Ideal Worker Norm. New Directions for Higher Education, No.176, (pp 11-24).

Wiedman, C. (2020). Rewarding Collaborative Research: Role Congruity Bias and the Gender Pay Gap in Academe. Journal of Business Ethics, 167, 793–807.

Wijesingha, R., & Ramos, H. (2017). Human Capital or Cultural Taxation: What Accounts for Differences in Tenure and Promotion of Racialized and Female Faculty? Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 47(3), 54–75.

Williams, J. (2005). The glass ceiling and the maternal wall in academiaNew Directions for Higher Education, 2005(130), 91–105.

Wolf-Wendel, L. & and Ward, K. (2003) Future prospects for women faculty: Negotiating work and family. In B. Ropers-Huilman (Ed). Gendered futures in higher education: Critical perspectives for change, 111-134. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Yousaf, R., & Schmiede, R. (2017). Barriers to women’s representation in academic excellence and positions of powerAsian Journal of German and European Studies, 2(1), 1–13.

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Ferguson, S. J. (2016). Women and Education: Qualifications, Skills and Technology.

Fernández, R. (2013). Cultural change as learning: The evolution of female labor force participation over a centuryAmerican Economic Review103(1), 472–500.

Field, C. C., Jones, G. A., Stephenson, G. K., & Khoyetsyan, A. (2014). The “ Other ” University Teachers: Non-Full-Time Instructors at Ontario Universities. 41.

Gravestock, P. & Greenleaf, E. G. (2008). Overview of Tenure and Promotion Policies Across Canada. 1-5. Toronto: University of Toronto.

McMullen, K., Gilmore, J., & Petit, C Le. (2010). Women in Non-traditional Occupations and Fields of Study. 

Millar, P., & Barker, J. E. (2020). Gender and Academic Promotion to Full Professor in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Sociology45(1), 47–70.

Momani, B., Dreher, E., & Williams, K. (2019). More Than a Pipeline Problem: Evaluating the Gender Pay Gap in Canadian Academia from 1996 to 2016Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 49(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.7202/1060821ar

Ornstein, M., Stewart, P., & Drakich, J. (2007). Promotion at Canadian Universities: The Intersection of Gender, Discipline, and Institution. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 37(3), 1–25.

Perna, L. (2001). Sex differences in faculty salaries: A cohort analysis. Review of Higher Education, 24(3), 283–308.

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Statistics Canada. (2019b). Survey of Postsecondary Faculty and Researchers (SPFR).

Statistics Canada. (2019c). Survey of Postsecondary Faculty and Researchers (SPFR).

Statistics Canada. (2020a). Full-Time: University and College Academic Staff System (FT-UCASS): Data element manual for survey respondents. https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/statistical-programs/instrument/3101_Q1_V3

Statistics Canada. (2020b). Table 37-10-0076-01 Number of full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities, by rank, sex.

Statistics Canada. (2020c). Table 37-10-0077-01 Number and median age of full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities, by highest earned degree, staff functions, rank, sex.

Wang, C., & Doolittle, R. (2021). Locked out of the ivory tower: How universities keep women from rising to the topThe Globe and Mail.

Women’s Career Transitions and the Leaky Pipeline in Ontario Universities

Sato, S., Gygax, P. M., Randall, J., & Schmid Mast, M. (2021). The leaky pipeline in research grant peer review and funding decisions: challenges and future directions. Higher Education, 82(1), 145–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00626-y

Statistics Canada. (2020a). Canadian postsecondary enrolments and graduates, 2017/2018. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2020b). Student pathways through postsecondary education, 2011 to 2016. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2021a). Table 37-10-0011-01 Postsecondary enrolments, by field of study, registration status, program type, credential type and gender. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2021b). Table 37-10-0012-01 Postsecondary graduates, by field of study, program type, credential type, and gender. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Turcotte, M. (2011). Women and Education. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Well, M. A., Williams, M., Corrigan, E., & Davidson, V. (2018). Closing the Gender Gap in Engineering and Physics: the role of high school physics. College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, 8.